The Huel Black Edition Formula Explained

Huel Black Edition is a nutritionally complete powdered food that is high in protein and fibre, reduced carbohydrate, low in sugar and salt, rich in phytonutrients, with an alternative macro split of 17:40:40:3 (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre) and all 26 essential vitamins and minerals.

Additionally, like all Huel products, it contains no lactose or any animal products, no soy, and no GMO.

Huel Black Edition meets the UK and EU Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI), Reference Intake (RI) and Nutrient Reference Value (NRV) for macro- and all micronutrients[1, 2, 3], providing fewer carbs, higher protein and an alternative macronutritional ratio for those who are looking for something different to Huel Powder v3.0.

Continue reading to find out more about Huel Black Edition.

The Huel Black Edition Formula Explained

Nutritional Information and Ingredients of Huel Black Edition

Huel Black Edition is 17:40:40:3 Macro Split

The principle macronutrients that we obtain energy from food are carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre, and in Huel Black Edition we’ve set them at the ratio of 17:40:40:3 respectively; i.e. just 17% of the energy comes from carbohydrate, while 40% comes from fat, 40% from protein and 3% from fibre.

Amino acids are the most basic units of protein, and several amino acids are essential for life, with others being crucial for good health, so any diet should include a significant amount of protein.

There are also fatty acids that are essential for life and good health, so including sources of fat is crucial too.

Carbohydrates, however, are not essential per se. Although carbs do have significant benefits to sustaining even energy levels, some people prefer to have a lower intake of carbs for some meals.

We’ve designed Huel Black Edition at ratios to suit people who are looking for more protein and less carbohydrate in a meal. These levels both provide a sustained release of energy and adequately provide essential macronutrients for optimum health.

Carbohydrate in Huel Black Edition

The carbohydrate content of Huel Black Edition is 50% lower than that of regular Huel Powder to provide an alternative product for those who desire a different carb intake for a meal. Tapioca is a starch that comes from the roots of the cassava plant and we’ve used this as the primary carbohydrate source as it also provides a smooth, rounded mouthfeel. As Huel Black Edition contains no artificial sweeteners, we’ve used a small amount of organic coconut sugar to compliment the natural sweetener stevia to deliver a subtle sweet taste. The inclusion of organic coconut sugar is at a low level and a serving of Huel Black Edition is low in sugar.

Fat in Huel Black Edition: Flaxseed, Sunflower and Coconut

The fats in Huel Black Edition provide 40% of the total energy and are mainly derived from flaxseed and sunflower seeds to ensure that polyunsaturated fatty acids are included in optimum amounts. We’ve also included coconut for very good reasons: the fats in coconut are what are known as medium-chain triglycerides, or MCTs, and these are treated much like carbs, i.e. they provide an energy-rich, sustained fuel and are perfect for those of us with busy lifestyles[4]. But MCTs have another invaluable quality: they are not susceptible to oxidation and rancidity, meaning that they do not contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In short, MCTs from coconut are a healthy and efficient source of energy. Read more about MCTs here.

Essential nutrients can not be made by the body so must be obtained from the diet. There are two completely essential fatty acids (EFAs) that humans require: linoleic acid (LA – an omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA – an omega-3)[5]. Using a blend of flaxseed and sunflower oil powder, we’ve ensured Huel Black Edition contains sufficient amounts of both of these EFAs as well as other omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. Moreover, these natural seed powders provide antioxidants and other vitamins and minerals. Free radicals may be involved in the pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing, so it’s desirable to keep their formation to a minimum, and this is the role of antioxidants[6].

Huel Black Edition is High-protein: Peas and Rice

The RI for protein is 50g per day, but this only covers our very basic needs and prevents protein deficiency[1, 2, 3]. Huel Black Edition is high in protein for those who desire a higher intake of protein for some meals. All essential amino acids are included in adequate amounts from two vegan protein sources: pea and brown rice protein. Based on an average 2,000-calorie intake, you’ll be consuming 200g of protein per day from Huel Black Edition. This is an adequate amount for optimal health as well as building and maintaining a healthy body. Furthermore, protein is more satiating (appetite suppressing) than other macronutrients[7], and we've designed Huel Black Edition to stop unwanted hunger pangs.

Amino Acid Profile of Huel Black Edition

Protein is made up of amino acids. There are over 500 amino acids in nature, 20 of which are known as the standard amino acids, as these are the ones that are coded for genetically and are subsequently involved in primary protein synthesis in animals. Of these 20, nine are essential as they cannot be synthesised from other amino acids.

The nine essential amino acids are:

  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine

The other 11 are:

  • Alanine
  • Arginine
  • Asparagine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Serine
  • Tyrosine

Amino Acid Content of Huel Black Edition (based on v1.0 Vanilla - amounts will differ slightly for other flavours)

Amino Acid (mg) Per 90g Per 2000kcal RDA* % of RDA
Tryptophan 465 2327 280 166%
Threonine 1519 7594 1050 145%
Isoleucine 1693 8463 1400 121%
Leucine 3452 17258 2730 126%
Lysine 1525 7623 2100 73%
Methionine 1079 5397 1050** 171%
Cysteine 712 3559
Phenylalanine 2213 11065 1750*** 250%
Tyrosine 2161 10805
Valine 2245 11225 1820 123%
Histidine 1431 7153 700 204%
Arginine 2960 14802
Alanine 2345 11724
Aspartic acid**** 3529 17646
Glutamic acid***** 6257 31283
Glycine 1779 8896
Proline 1988 9941
Serine 2066 10331

  • *WHO (2007) recommended daily amounts for essential amino acids for a 70kg adult
  • **Combined total for methionine + cysteine
  • ***Combined total for phenylalanine + tyrosine
  • ****Figure includes asparagine
  • *****Figure includes glutamine

All protein sources are not equal: some are classed as ‘complete proteins’ and some are not. A complete protein is one that contains sufficient quantities of all nine essential amino acids. Generally, proteins derived from animal foods (meat, fish, poultry, milk and eggs) are complete. Indeed, some proteins derived from plant foods (legumes, seeds, grains and vegetables) are often complete as well; examples include chickpeas, black beans, pumpkin seeds, cashews, cauliflower, quinoa, pistachios, turnip greens, black-eyed peas and soya. Many plant foods have insufficient amounts or one or more of the essential amino acids. Some are notably low, such as corn protein, which is low in lysine and isoleucine.

The protein in Huel Black Edition comes from three of the main ingredients: pea protein, brown rice protein and flaxseed. This ensures a good range of all amino acids and that there are sufficient amounts of the essential amino acids. Rice protein is high in the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine, plus it contains good amounts of all the others, but is very low in lysine. Pea protein is low in cysteine and methionine but high in lysine. This is why we selected these two sources, ensuring everything was covered whilst keeping Huel Black Edition vegan. Plus there’s additional protein from the flaxseed.

Huel Black Edition is High-fibre

A 2,000-calorie serving of Huel Black Edition contains 110-128% (varies between flavour) of the recommended daily amount of fibre. The fibre in Huel Black Edition is a mixture of soluble and insoluble forms all naturally supplied from the food ingredients, mainly from flaxseed, and provides more than most modern solid diets. The high-fibre content of Huel Black Edition helps to ensure the formation of normal, solid stools in healthy users.

Fibre acts like a sponge, so it’s important to consume lots of water when using Huel Black Edition[8]. The Huel Black Edition recipe has been designed to support digestive system health.

Vitamins and Minerals in Huel Black Edition

A bulk of the vitamins and minerals – also known as micronutrients – in Huel Black Edition are from natural ingredients. However, in order to meet the demands of a Western lifestyle, we've added a unique vitamin and mineral formula to provide, in some cases, more than 100% of the recommended amounts per 2000kcal while still remaining within safe upper limits.

Since the UK Dietary Reference Values were compiled in 1991[1], there have been numerous studies in the past 20 years demonstrating that, for many micronutrients, levels higher than the RNI may have beneficial effects to health.

For example, it’s widely considered that the amount of vitamin C we’re recommended to consume is too low[9-11], so we've reflected this in the formula. Benefits of consuming more vitamin C include a healthy immune system, healthy skin and antioxidant properties[10-12]

With calcium, the US recommended amount is more than the UK RNI (1,300mg vs 800mg per day)[1, 2, 13], and we feel the US recommendation is more than sufficient to more than protect against osteoporosis. With some of the trace elements the levels are far higher than the recommended amounts. This is because we only need tiny amounts of them, but the natural ingredients in Huel Black Edition are a rich source.

Choline is a conditionally essential B vitamin, and although, strictly speaking, it can be synthesised in our bodies, it’s more efficient to obtain it from our diets[14]. It’s of particular importance for post-menopausal women[15, 16]. As Huel Black Edition is all about optimum health, the inclusion of choline was felt to be fundamental.

There has been some concern about phytic acid: a naturally occurring substance in some seeds including flaxseed. Phytic acid can chelate (bind) some minerals meaning that they’re less bioavailable[17]. As flaxseed is a large contributor to the nutrition of Huel Black Edition, we've ensured that there are adequate levels of some minerals, like iron and zinc, to accommodate any issues with phytic acid chelation. Furthermore, the high level of vitamin C in Huel Black Edition will also further promote iron absorption[18].

Phytonutrients in Huel Black Edition

Phytonutrients are substances found in plant foods which, whilst not essential, may exhibit some health benefits like disease risk prevention[19]. Junk food diets and many synthetic liquid diets that aren’t based on real food are deficient in phytonutrients, and thus consumers miss out on invaluable health benefits and antioxidant effects.

Because Huel Black Edition’s fundamental ingredients are plant-based foods, and some of these are already phytonutrient-rich, the benefits are passed onto anyone consuming Huel Black Edition. However, we've also added some additional phytonutrients to optimise the Huel Black Edition formula and to complement the antioxidant nutrients vitamins C and E and selenium.

The following beneficial phytonutrients have been added to Huel Black Edition:

  • Lutein: we've added additional lutein in our vitamin and mineral blend. Although not essential, there is concern that diets low in lutein may lead to macular degeneration of the eye in the elderly, as lutein is involved in eye pigment development[20, 21]. Lutein is also an antioxidant.
  • Zeaxanthin: another antioxidant, this has been added as it also has a role in long-term eye health[20].
  • Lycopene: added as it's a potent antioxidant and has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers[22].
  • Green tea catechins: green tea extract is included as it is rich in catechins especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which are polyphenols with antioxidant activity[23, 24].

Probiotics and Kombucha

Huel Black Edition contains the probiotic Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856. Probiotics are ‘good’ bacteria which, when consumed in adequate amounts, may have health benefits, particularly for gut health[25-27].

Kombucha is a fermented product that is made using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). Kombucha provides B-vitamins which are produced when the SCOBY breaks down the sugars present[28].

Huel Black Edition and FODMAPs

FODMAPs are short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed and consequently ferment so can be irritant to some people's intestines[29]. Huel Black Edition is low in FODMAPs constituents so is suitable for people who follow a low-FODMAP diet. Read more about Huel and FODMAPs here.

Summary - Huel Black Edition is Food

As you can see, Huel Black Edition has far superior nutrition compared to most conventional diets. Huel Black Edition can be consumed as individual meals or even as a between-meal snack. In this way, it can be an add-on improvement to your diet to ensure you’re giving your body what it needs.

Ingredients of Huel Black Edition

Vanilla

Pea Protein, Ground Flaxseed, Brown Rice Protein, Tapioca Starch, Sunflower Oil Powder, Organic Coconut Sugar, Natural Vanilla Flavouring, Maltodextrin, Micronutrient Blend*, Medium-Chain Triglyceride Powder (from Coconut), Stabiliser: Xanthan Gum, Sweetener: Steviol Glycosides, Kombucha Tea Powder, Green Tea Extract Powder, Bacillus Coagulans MTCC5856.

*Potassium Citrate, Potassium Chloride, Corn Starch, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin C, Niacin (as Niacinamide), Lutein, Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium- D-Pantothenate), Lycopene, Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride), Riboflavin, Vitamin A (as Retinyl Acetate), Thiamin Mononitrate, Zeaxanthin, Vitamin K2 (as Menaquinone-7), L-Methylfolate, Potassium Iodide, Vitamin D2 (as Ergocalciferol), Plant-Derived Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol), Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin).

Allergy advice: For allergens see ingredients in bold. May contain: Mustard.

Chocolate

Pea Protein, Ground Flaxseed, Brown Rice Protein, Tapioca Starch, Cocoa Powder, Sunflower Oil Powder, Organic Coconut Sugar, Natural Chocolate Flavouring, Maltodextrin, Micronutrient Blend*, Medium-Chain Triglyceride Powder (from Coconut), Stabiliser: Xanthan Gum, Sweetener: Steviol Glycosides, Kombucha Tea Powder, Green Tea Extract Powder, Bacillus Coagulans MTCC5856.

*Potassium Citrate, Potassium Chloride, Corn Starch, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin C, Niacin (as Niacinamide), Lutein, Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium-D-Pantothenate), Lycopene, Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride), Riboflavin, Vitamin A (as Retinyl Acetate), Thiamin Mononitrate, Zeaxanthin, Vitamin K2 (as Menaquinone-7), L-Methylfolate, Potassium Iodide, Vitamin D2 (as Ergocalciferol), Plant-Derived Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol), Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin).

Allergy advice: For allergens see ingredients in bold. May contain: Mustard.

Nutritional Profile of Huel Black Edition

Vanilla v1.0

Each bag contains 1.53kg

Serving size: 90g x 5 meals per day

Per 90g serving Per 2000kcal % RI* per
90g serving
% RI* per
2000kcal
Energy 1680kJ 8400kJ 20% 100%
400kcal 2000kcal
Fat 18g 89g 26% 127%
- of which saturates 2.5g 13g 13% 63%
- of which monounsaturates 2.5g 13g
- of which polyunsaturates 12g 60g
Carbohydrate 17g 87g 6% 32%
- of which sugars 4.4g 22g 5% 25%
Fibre 6.6g 33g (22%) (110%)
Protein 40g 200g 80% 400%
Salt 1.0g 5.0g 17% 83%

Vitamins & Minerals

Per 90g serving Per 2000kcal % RI* (NRV**)
per 90g serving
% RI* (NRV**)
per 2000kcal
Vitamin A (µg) 180 900 23% 113%
Vitamin D2 (µg) 2.0 10 80% 400%
Vitamin D3 (µg) 2.0 10
Vitamin E (mg) 3.0 15 25% 125%
Vitamin K2 (µg) 35 175 47% 233%
Vitamin C (mg) 60 300 75% 375%
Thiamin (mg) 0.24 1.2 22% 109%
Riboflavin (mg) 0.28 1.4 20% 100%
Niacin (mg) 3.2 16 20% 100%
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.34 1.7 24% 121%
Folate (µg) 80 400 40% 200%
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.8 4 32% 160%
Biotin (µg) 12 60 24% 120%
Pantothenic Acid (mg) 1.2 6 20% 100%
Potassium (mg) 640 3200 32% 160%
Chloride (mg) 160 800 20% 100%
Calcium (mg) 260 1300 33% 163%
Phosphorus (mg) 360 1800 52% 257%
Magnesium (mg) 88 440 23% 117%
Iron (mg) 7.6 38 54% 271%
Zinc (mg) 3.7 19 37% 185%
Copper (mg) 0.5 2.5 50% 250%
Manganese (mg) 1.1 5.5 55% 275%
Selenium (µg) 30 150 55% 273%
Chromium (µg) 9 45 23% 113%
Molybdenum (µg) 38 190 76% 380%
Iodine (µg) 30 150 20% 100%

Additional Information

Per 90g Serving Per 2000kcal
Choline (mg) 120 600
Lycopene (mg) 1 5
Lutein (mg) 1.2 6
Zeaxanthin (mg) 0.1 0.5
Omega 3 (g) 6.1 31
Omega 6 (g) 5.2 26
MCTs (g) 1.1 5.5
Trans Fat (g) <0.5 <0.5
Bacillus Coagulans MTCC5856 (Mn) 200 1000
Epigallocatechin Gallate (mg) 40 200

*Reference Intake

**Nutrient Reference Value

Chocolate v1.0

Each bag contains 1.53kg

Serving size: 90g x 5 meals per day

Per 90g serving Per 2000kcal % RI* per
90g serving
% RI* per
2000kcal
Energy 1680kJ 8400kJ 20% 100%
400kcal 2000kcal
Fat 18g 89g 26% 127%
- of which saturates 3.1g 16g 16% 79%
- of which monounsaturates 2.7g 14g
- of which polyunsaturates 11g 56g
Carbohydrate 16g 82g 6% 30%
- of which sugars 4.4g 22g 5% 25%
Fibre 7.7g 39g (26%) (128%)
Protein 40g 200g 80% 400%
Salt 1.0g 5.0g 17% 83%

Vitamins & Minerals

Per 90g serving Per 2000kcal % RI* (NRV**)
per 90g serving
% RI* (NRV**)
per 2000kcal
Vitamin A (µg) 180 900 23% 113%
Vitamin D2 (µg) 2.0 10 80% 400%
Vitamin D3 (µg) 2.0 10
Vitamin E (mg) 3.2 16 25% 125%
Vitamin K2 (µg) 35 175 47% 233%
Vitamin C (mg) 60 300 75% 375%
Thiamin (mg) 0.24 1.2 22% 109%
Riboflavin (mg) 0.28 1.4 20% 100%
Niacin (mg) 3.2 16 20% 100%
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.34 1.7 24% 121%
Folate (µg) 80 400 40% 200%
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.8 4 32% 160%
Biotin (µg) 12 60 24% 120%
Pantothenic Acid (mg) 1.2 6 20% 100%
Potassium (mg) 700 3500 32% 160%
Chloride (mg) 160 800 20% 100%
Calcium (mg) 260 1300 33% 163%
Phosphorus (mg) 370 1850 52% 257%
Magnesium (mg) 100 500 23% 117%
Iron (mg) 7.8 39 54% 271%
Zinc (mg) 3.8 19 37% 185%
Copper (mg) 0.56 2.8 50% 250%
Manganese (mg) 1.1 5.3 55% 275%
Selenium (µg) 32 160 55% 273%
Chromium (µg) 9 45 23% 113%
Molybdenum (µg) 37 185 76% 380%
Iodine (µg) 30 150 20% 100%

Additional Information

Per 90g Serving Per 2000kcal
Choline (mg) 120 600
Lycopene (mg) 1 5
Lutein (mg) 1.2 6
Zeaxanthin (mg) 0.1 0.5
Omega 3 (g) 5.6 28
Omega 6 (g) 5.0 25
MCTs (g) 1.1 5.5
Trans Fat (g) <0.5 <0.5
Bacillus Coagulans MTCC5856 (Mn) 200 1000
Epigallocatechin Gallate (mg) 40 200

*Reference Intake

**Nutrient Reference Value

Huel Black Edition Cautions and Allergen Advice

Huel Black Edition is food, therefore it is suitable for people with most conditions. However, as some conditions require dietary intervention, like with any food, please heed the notes below for the following conditions:

  • Diabetes mellitus - Huel Black Edition is suitable for type 1 and type 2 diabetics. As with all food, if you're using medication to help control your diabetes you should structure your intake of Huel Black Edition appropriately.
  • Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis - Huel Black Edition is gluten-free and is made with no gluten-containing ingredients.
  • Inborn errors of metabolism - if you have a glycogen storage disorder (GSD) or other inborn error of metabolism where you require dietary manipulation, you must consult your doctor or specialist clinician before having Huel Black Edition.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease - if you suffer from Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or proctitis, and are experiencing a flare-up, we advise caution when having Huel Black Edition. However, if you’re in remission, Huel Black Edition may actually be beneficial.
  • Pregnancy & lactation - One 400kcal serving of Huel Black Edition per day is fine to include during pregnancy and for nursing/lactating mothers. Above this amount is not advised due to the different nutritional requirements to the general population.
  • Children - Huel Black Edition is not suitable for children under 4 years of age. However, older children may include Huel Black Edition as part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of other foods, but Huel Black Edition should not be their sole source of nutrition as they have different nutritional requirements to adults; for more information see our Children, Adolescents and Huel article.
  • Eating disorders - Huel Black Edition may be consumed by individuals with anorexia or bulimia nervosa as a useful source of complete nutrition. However, we recommend that individuals with eating disorders only use any Huel products after discussing their inclusion with their doctor or relevant clinician.

Huel Black Edition is not suitable for those who suffer from phenylketonuria (PKU).

Medication Interactions

Huel Black Edition is fine to consume if you’re using most medication. Although there are no obvious reasons why Huel Black Edition should be an issue, there may be specific drug-nutrient interactions relating to a particular medicine you're using, so we recommend you read the drug information provided with your prescription, and if you have any further concerns, please discuss them with your doctor.

Allergen Advice

All Huel products are 100% vegan. We thoroughly assess our ingredients and the processes we use to make Huel and whenever we identify potential routes of allergen contamination we will first take steps to eliminate the possibility of any contamination of our product. However, where it is not possible to remove the risk we will clearly highlight any allergens that might be present on our product packaging (and ingredient lists) in line with current UK and EU food safety guidelines.

However, we recognise that individuals can have allergies to any protein in any ingredient therefore if you have a specific allergy that is outside of the remit above, please contact us directly and we will do our best to guide you on which products are suitable.

Huel Black Edition is gluten-free. It’s also avenin-free: it does not contain any oats so is also suitable for those with an oat intolerance and coeliacs who have an adverse reaction to oats.

Further reading

References

  1. Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Reports on health and social subjects. 1991; 41:1-210.
  2. Europe F. Guidance on the Provision of Food Information to Consumers 2013. Available from: https://www.fooddrinkeurope.eu/uploads/publications_documents/FDE_Guidance_WEB.pdf.
  3. England PH. Government Dietary Recommendations. In: Health Do, editor. 2016.
  4. Marten B, et al. Medium-chain triglycerides. International Dairy Journal. 2006; 16(11):1374-82.
  5. Institute LP. Oregon State University Essential Fatty Acids. Date Accessed: 25/11/19. [Available from: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids]
  6. Lobo V, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010; 4(8):118-26.
  7. Weigle DS, et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005; 82(1):41-8.
  8. Gallaher D. Dietary Fiber. Washington, D.C: ILSI Press; 2006.
  9. Deruelle F, et al. Vitamin C: is supplementation necessary for optimal health? Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, NY). 2008; 14(10):1291-8.
  10. Combs J, et al. The Vitamins. 4th ed. Burlington: Elsevier Science; 2012.
  11. Hathcock JN, et al. Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 81(4):736-45.
  12. Institute LP. Oregon State University. Vitamin C. Date Accessed: 12/04/19. [Available from: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-C]
  13. Administration USFaD. Nutrition Labeling of Food. 2018.
  14. Zeisel SH, et al. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009; 67(11):615-23.
  15. Fischer LM, et al. Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2010; 92(5):1113-9.
  16. Fischer LM, et al. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007; 85(5):1275-85.
  17. Schlemmer U, et al. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: Food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2009; 53:S330-S75.
  18. Teucher B, et al. Enhancers of iron absorption: Ascorbic acid and other organic acids. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 2004; 74(6):403-19.
  19. Leitzmann C. Characteristics and Health Benefits of Phytochemicals. Forsch Komplementmed. 2016; 23(2):69-74.
  20. Ibtissem B, et al. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Carpobrotus edulis Extracts. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science. 2012; Vol.02No.03:7.
  21. Semba RD, et al. Are lutein and zeaxanthin conditionally essential nutrients for eye health? Medical hypotheses. 2003; 61(4):465-72.
  22. Richer S, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry (St Louis, Mo). 2004; 75(4):216-30.
  23. Chacko SM, et al. Beneficial effects of green tea: a literature review. Chin Med. 2010; 5:13-.
  24. Forester SC, et al. The role of antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer prevention. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2011; 55(6):844-54.
  25. Majeed M, et al. Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 supplementation in the management of diarrhea predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot clinical study. Nutr J. 2016; 15:21.
  26. Hemarajata P, et al. Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013; 6(1):39-51.
  27. Nagpal R, et al. Human-origin probiotic cocktail increases short-chain fatty acid production via modulation of mice and human gut microbiome. Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):12649
  28. Jayabalan R, et al. A Review on Kombucha Tea—Microbiology, Composition, Fermentation, Beneficial Effects, Toxicity, and Tea Fungus. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2014; 13(4):538-50
  29. El-Salhy M, et al. The role of diet in the pathogenesis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2012; 29(5):723-31.

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